Friday, 26 April 2013

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

The duck looks smooth and calm on top of water, but. Under that there is restless pedaling. Nothing is worth without struggle in real life.  

Thursday, 25 April 2013

Free Essays for Competitive exams-Assistance to MSMES to Compete in International Market

Assistance to MSMES to Compete in International Market

The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) sector has emerged as a highly vibrant and dynamic sector of the Indian economy over the last five decades. MSMEs not only play crucial role in providing large employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than large industries but also help in industrialization of rural & backward areas, thereby,  reducing regional imbalances, assuring more equitable distribution of national income and wealth.  MSMEs are complementary to large industries as ancillary units and contribute enormously to the socio-economic development of the country.  

Fast changing global economic scenario has thrown up various opportunities and challenges to the MSMEs in India. While on the one hand, many opportunities are opened up for this sector to enhance productivity and look for new markets at national and international level, it has also, on the other hand, put an obligation to upgrade their competencies to meet the competition as new products are launched at an astonishing pace and are available world wide in short time.

To make MSMEs competitive in the international market assistance is given by the Ministry through various schemes:-

The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme (NMCP)

 The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme (NMCP) is the nodalprogramme of the Government to develop global competitiveness among Indian MSMEs. An amount of Rs.500 crores as the Government’s Contribution had been allocated for NMCP during XIth Plan.  NMCP targets at enhancing the entire value chain of the MSME sector through the following schemes:

 Lean Manufacturing Competitiveness Scheme for MSMEs;  
Promotion of Information & Communication Tools (ICT) in MSME sector;
Technology and Quality Up gradation Support to MSMEs;
Design Clinics scheme for MSMEs;
Enabling Manufacturing Sector to be Competitive through Quality ManagementStandards (QMS) and Quality Technology Tools (QTT);
 Marketing Assistance and Technology Up gradation Scheme for MSMEs;
Setting up of Mini Tool Room under PPP Mode;
National campaign for building awareness on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR);
Support for Entrepreneurial and Managerial Development of SMEs through Incubators.
Bar Code under Market Development Assistance  (MDA) Scheme
There are mainly two activities under this scheme:
Bar Code - This scheme aims to encourage Micro & Small exporters in their efforts in tapping and developing overseas market, enhance exports from Micro / Small manufacturingenterprises  by popularizing the adoption of Bar Coding on a large scale. For adoption of Bar Code, the Government provides   reimbursement of 75% of one time registration fee (w.e.f. Ist January 2002) and 75% of annual fees (recurring) (w.e.f. Ist June 2007) paid to GS1 India (Formerly EAN India) by Micro & Small units for the first three years for bar code.
International Trade Fair - Under International Trade fair scheme, the Government provides 75% of air fare subsidy by economy class and 50% space rental subsidy for Micro & Small manufacturing enterprises of General category entrepreneurs. For Women/SC/ST Entrepreneurs & Entrepreneurs from North Eastern Region, 100% reimbursement of space rent and economy class air fare is provided. The subsidy is restricted to Rs.1.25 lakhs per unit. 
Marketing Assistance and Technology upgradation Scheme for MSMEs (NMCP)

The objective of this scheme is to enhance MSME’s competitiveness in the National as well as International market through various activities such as Technology Up gradation in Packaging, Skill Up gradation/Development of Modern Market Techniques, special components for North Eastern region (Participation of MSMEs of NER in domestic exhibitions organized in other parts of the country),  New market through State/District level local exhibitions/trade fairs, Corporate Governance practices, Reimbursement to ISO-18000/22000/27000 Certification and Setting up of Marketing Hubs in the premises of selected MSME-DIs.

Cluster Development Programme

Under the Micro & Small Enterprises – Cluster Development Programme (MSE-CDP) financial assistance is provided to Micro & Small Enterprises Clusters for Various activities including marketing assistance. This include participation of entrepreneurs in clusters in one foreign fair, benchmarking support, brochure preparation, website launching etc. to help them become competitive in the international market.

Marketing Assistance scheme of National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC)  

Marketing support is provided to MSMEs to enhance their competitiveness and marketability of their products. The assistance is provided for following activities:

Participation in International Exhibitions / trade Fairs in foreign countries.
Organizing “Techmart” exhibition and international level exhibitions in India which are visited by foreign delegations;
 Organizing visits of delegations abroad for promoting Indian MSMEs.

Interest Subvention Scheme of Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT)  

 2% Interest subvention scheme available to SMEs for exports amongst other sectors has been extended till March 31, 2014. 

During the calendar year 2011, the share of Indian MSME exports as a percentage of total world imports for the same products manufactured by Indian MSMEs has been provisionally estimated at 1.90%. The estimate is based on the data taken from International Trade Centre (ITC), UN COMTRADE Statistics. 

Quotable Quote-Message of the day

“If you salute your dream, You need not salute anybody…But If you pollute your dream, you have to salute everybody”
Dr.Abdul kalam

Wednesday, 24 April 2013

Free Essays for Competitive Exams-Measures for the Speedy Trial of Pending Cases

Measures for the Speedy Trial of Pending Cases
-       Backgrounder: Law & Justice 

Government has approved making available up to Rs. 80 crore per annum on a matching basis up to 31/3/2015 from out of the amount allocated (Rs. 500 crore per annum) for morning/evening/shift courts in the 13th Finance Commission Award for judiciary, for meeting the expenditure on 10% additional positions of judges to be created in the State Judicial Services in pursuance of the judgement of the Supreme Court in Brij Mohan Lal case. 

Government has written to the Chief Ministers of all States and Chief Justices of all High Courts to set up Fast Track Courts for concluding trial in rape cases. The States have been requested to utilize the additional positions of Judges being created in the Subordinate Judiciary in pursuance of the directions of the Supreme Court in Brij Mohan Lal case, to be funded on a matching basis by the Central and the State Governments, for this purpose. 

In respect of vacancies in High Courts, Government has periodically been writing to the Chief Justices of the High Courts to send proposals timely for filling the vacancies. Government has written to Chief Justices of the High Courts to invite the attention of the district judges, inter-alia, to the provisions in section 309 of the Code of Criminal Procedure so that court proceedings are held on a day to day basis until all witnesses in attendance, have been examined and the adjournments are minimized. 

In order to reduce pendency of cases in courts, Advisory Council of the National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reforms has resolved that the overall number of judges/ courts in subordinate judiciary may be increased to double the present number over a period of five (05) years with matching support from the Central and the State Governments. A comprehensive scheme of National Court Management Systems (NCMS) has been formulated and notified by the Supreme Court under which a National Framework of Court Excellence (NFCE) has been prepared, which shall set measurable standards of performance of courts addressing the issues of quality, responsiveness and timeliness. Based on the recommendation of the Advisory Committee of NCMS, the Chief Justice of India has written to the Chief Justices of High Courts for doubling the number of Courts in subordinate Judiciary. He has urged the Chief Justices to take it up with the State Governments for providing the requisite funds as well as funds for infrastructure and staff

Free Essays for Competitive Exams-ASIDE: A Scheme for Creating Industrial Infrastructure

ASIDE: A Scheme for Creating Industrial Infrastructure

Karnataka ranks top in the field of flower farming in India with over 18,000 hectares of land under cultivation. The state accounts for 75 per cent share in India's total flower production and has the highest area under modern cut flowers. In the past, the cut flowers were transacted through the process of auction. As a result, the number of transactions per day was meagre. Therefore the need of a modern auctioning system to facilitate flower exports was deeply felt.

The International Flower Auction Yard in Bangalore, which is a joint venture between Karnataka Agro Industries Corporation and the flower growers of the state, was helped by the Department of Commerce with a financial assistance aid to maximise the transactions. The aid also paved the way towards the creation of a hygienic platform for both sellers and buyers so that the farmers get the maximum price in export of flowers. The financial assistance of Rupees Three Crore, which proved to a game changer for the flower growers of the state, was provided under the Assistance to States for Infrastructure Development and Exports Scheme (ASIDE) of the Department of Commerce of the Government of India. The monetary help facilitated in the completion of the project of replacement of the traditional auctioning system.

Now, with the support under the ASIDE Scheme, the modern electronic auction clock system helps the bidders in reducing time loss and maintaining transparency. Along with this, with the implementation of the new system, the local flower growers were able to facilitate 800-1000 transactions per day as against 400-500 transactions in the past when the manual system was in action. The new system was an evidence of the quick auctioning system, with very large number of small lots being auctioned through quick price discovery.

The ASIDE Scheme has, apart to the Karnataka flower growers, proved to be very efficacious and beneficiary for exports country-wide. Launched in 2002, this Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) is aimed at involving States / Union Territories in export effort by providing assistance to them for creating appropriate infrastructure for development and growth of exports. The scheme provides for an outlay for development of export infrastructure to be distributed to the States / UTs according to a pre-defined criterion.

Such activities which have overwhelming export content were funded through the Scheme, with the sole motto of the development of infrastructure for exports. The Scheme is exclusively used for building up infrastructure which does not get reflected either in the State / UT plan or in the plans of the Central Ministries or its organisation(s), yet such infrastructure is critical for growth of exports.

Till now, an amount of about Rs.5700 Crores has been released under the Central and State components of ASIDE Scheme for creation of the necessary infrastructure in States / UTs to boost exports. The Scheme has given shape to some of the most important infrastructure facilities in various States/UTs.

One such infrastructural development is the Maniram Dewan Trade Centre in Guwahati, Assam. With the growth in business and trade volumes in the North East region, along with the necessity for global competitiveness, the need for a Trade Centre to facilitate organisation of trade fairs and exhibitions and invite wider participation was being felt in the North East region. To address this issue, the Assam Trade Promotion Organization, a Special Purpose Vehicle under the Government of Assam made a proposal for assistance of Rs.28.38 Crore under the ASIDE Scheme for the construction of Maniram Dewan Trade Centre. The Centre started its operations in March 2009. It has three air conditioned exhibition halls and conference rooms, meeting rooms, amphitheatre, with all modern incidental facilities.

With the construction of the Trade Centre, the impact on export can be assessed from the increase in occupancy rate from 8.20 per cent in 2009 to 53.44 per cent in 2011. The Centre attracted visitors/delegates from various South East Asian countries. The Centre is serving as a platform for entrepreneurs of the region to display their products in national and international trade fairs.

Take for instance the additional infrastructure facilities built at the Calicut Air Cargo Complex under the ASIDE Scheme. Earlier, the export operations in Calicut Airport were transacted from within the airport itself. The lack of export processing area and space requirement for offices for customs, airlines, plant quarantine and exporters among others, was causing delays in transport of export goods which resulted in loss in quality and competitiveness of goods. To overcome the problems faced by exporters, the Kerala State Industrial Enterprises Ltd. (KSIE) submitted a project report for constructions of "IInd Phase Construction of Additional Infrastructural Facilities at Calicut Air Cargo Complex, Karipur" at the total cost of Rs.3.10 crore, with financial assistance of Rs.15.5. crore under the ASIDE Scheme.

The project involved construction of buildings, electrification & air-conditioning, fire detection, fire fighting equipments & security system, machinery & equipment, computerisation and communication systems. With the completion of the project, the dwelling time of the cargo was reduced by its speedy clearance by new X-ray machine. Apart from it, the creation of additional space and other infrastructural facilities also helped the exporters to protect their commodities from direct sunlight and rain. It is to be noted that when the project was partially commissioned during 2008-09, the quantity of exports increased by 50 per cent. But presently the export volume is 225 per cent more than what it was in 2007- 08. It has given big boost to the agricultural exports from Malabar region through the Calicut airport.

The Institute of Auto parts & Hand Tools Technology in Ludhiana lacked the R&D facilities for quality improvement of products of Small and Medium Enterprises of the place to match export standards elsewhere. The Department of Commerce helped in strengthening the Institute for installation of facilities for reverse engineering, non-destructive testing and advanced heat treatment processing with 100 per cent finance of the project cost of Rs.5.18crore under the ASIDE Scheme. With the financial assistance, the exports in this sector have gone up from Rs. 6000 crore in 2005-06 to Rs.9500 crore in 2008-09, with the share of Punjab being 30-35 per cent. It has also eased component sourcing & import substitutability and ensured availability of advanced technical infrastructure to manufacturers and exporters locally. It has also resulted in precision manufacturing of product development for global markets. Besides all these, the project has been successful in creation of skilled manpower base for various industries and employment generation through training programs & skills upgradation.

The financial aid under the ASIDE Scheme hence proved to be a major booster dose for the exporters in building infrastructural facilities.

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

People do not change when you give them an option. They change when they realize that there is no other option. 

Tuesday, 23 April 2013

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

When we trust a person, they think that they are with us forever to share our pain….but time remind us that those tasty fruits are only seasonal…..!!!!!

Friday, 19 April 2013

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

Many things about tomorrow you may not understand, but there’s One holds your tomorrow and he will hold your head and take you through all situations. Just believe and things happen as they are meant to be….!

Thursday, 18 April 2013

Free essays for Competitive Exams-Development of North-Eastern Region

Development of North-Eastern Region

The Ministry of Steel has been exempted from the requirement of earmarking 10% of its budgetary allocation for the development of North Eastern Region.

Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL)

The proposal for setting up a Steel Processing Unit (SPU) at Guwahati, Assam was approved in principle by SAIL Board in April, 2008. The proposed facilities and product-mix envisaged is TMT Bar Mill of 88,000 TPA. For the Project, 31 acres of land at Tilingaon in north Guwahati, near IIT Guwahati has been allotted to SAIL at a cost of ` 7.97 crores. Survey of land has been completed. Barbed wire fencing of boundary, gate and security room completed. The concessions/benefits considered at the time of ‘in principle’ approval are not available at present. Govt. of Assam has been requested for the concessions/ benefits regarding income tax exemption, ED exemption and interest subsidy on working capital, etc. After receiving the above information, the project will be reviewed for financial viability.

Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. (RINL)

RINL-VSP is servicing the North Eastern Region directly through its Branch Sales Office (BSO) at Kolkata and the Consignment Sales Agents (CSAs) appointed at Guwahati (M/sShreeram Keshrimal) and at Agartala (M/s S.R. Construction) to cater to the demand of various customers in the Region. In order to promote sales in the North Eastern Region, BSO Kolkata is extending Incentive to Project Customers of the Region. RINL-VSP is also supplying steel products directly to Hydro-Electric, Road and Other Projects in the North Eastern Region through VSP’s Stockyard at Kolkata and through the Retailers based in Kolkata. RINL-VSP sold 1670 tonnes of Saleable Steel directly from Kolkata Stockyard to North-Eastern Region during April 2012 to December 2012.


MSTC does not have any direct involvement with the North Eastern Region. But MSTC has some indirect involvement of selling scrap of Public Sector Units and Defence units situated in the North East such as Oil India Ltd., ONGC, BRPL, North Eastern Coalfields Ltd. etc. and Army units at Bengdubi, Hashimara, Jorhat etc. Generally, scrap of such units is purchased by local businessmen which indirectly benefits the region

Hindustan Steelworks Construction Ltd. (HSCL)

The Company has a proud privilege of participating in the Bharat Nirman Programme of Govt. of India in construction of rural roads in the North Eastern State of Tripura under PMGSY. HSCL has been working as a Project Implementation Unit there with the responsibility starting from preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR) to the maintenance of the roads for five years after construction. Rural roads of Phases IV to VII under PMGSY have achieved satisfactory progress. The DPRs for Phase-VIII for
a value of ` 204 Cr. have also been approved by NRRDA and work is progressing satisfactorily. Number of roads completed so far is 116 out of the total scope of 177.

The present value of work under PMGSY is about ` 700 Cr. in Tripura, which is likely to go up further in the next phases.

In the state of Jharkhand also, HSCL has been nominated as one of the PIUs for taking up construction of about 1400 km of rural roads under PMGSY. DPR for this project has so far been approved for` 280 cr. by NRRDA. The value is expected to go up to ` 500 cr. The work in Jharkhand is progressing well.

HSCL has successfully completed and handed over 3 Nos. of 150 bedded District Hospitals one each in North, South and Dhalai District under Department of Health, Govt. of Tripura. Implementation of one 100 bedded hospital at Teliamura and Staff Quarters at the three District Hospitals are also progressing well.

The Company has signed MoU with the Department of Health & Family Welfare Government of Mizoram for implementation of 100-bedded civic hospital at Saiha and 50-bedded Hospital at Lawngtlai. In addition, two auditorium projects at Champhai andLawngtlai valuing ` 25 cr. each have also been secured. Implementation of these projects will start soon. Besides these, efforts are on to secure infrastructure development projects in other North Eastern states including Meghalaya and Manipur.

HSCL has successfully completed the following two Projects in the North Eastern States of Sikkim, which will help in infrastructure building and tourism development of the State:

(i) Construction of Pilgrimage Centre at Solopok, involving installation of an 108 feet tall idol of Lord Siva and a number of shrines of Hindu deities at the hilly terrain of picturesque Sikkim. The ‘Pranpratistha’ has been done.

(ii) Cultural Centre at Yang Yang.

HSCL has already expressed its willingness to take up water supply projects in Sikkim.

Free Essays for Competitive Exams-Mango: the national fruit of India

Mango: the national fruit of India

Mango is the most important fruit of India.  It is grown over an area of 1.23 million hectares in the country producing 10.99 million tonnes. India ranks first among world’s mango producing countries accounting for 52.63 per cent of the world’s total mango production of 19 million tonnes. Mango accounts for 22.1 per cent of total area (5.57 million ha) and 22.9 per cent of total production of fruits (47.94 million tonnes) in the country. Though Uttar Pradesh has the largest area of 0.27 million hectares under mango, Andhra Pradesh has the highest productivity of 12 tonnes per hectare. While Andhra Pradesh produces 3.07 million tonnes of mango, U.P., Bihar and Karnataka produce 2.39, 1.79 and 0.92 million tonnes, respectively. India is also a prominent exporter of fresh mangoes the country has exported over634 lakh tonne of fresh mangoes worth of Rs. 209.74 crore during 2011-12.The major mango importers from India are United Arab Emirates, Bangladesh, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia and Nepal.

There are more than a thousand mango varieties in India. However, only about 30 varieties are grown on commercial scale in different States. Important mango varieties cultivated in different states of India are:

Andhra Pradesh
Banganpalli, Bangalora,Cherukurasam, Himayuddin, Suvarnarekha
Bombai, Langra, Fazri, Himsagar, Kishen Bhog, Sukul, Bathua
Fernandin, Mankurad, Alphonso
Alphonso, Kesar, Rajapuri, Vanraj
Dashehari, Langra, Bombay Green
Himachal Pradesh
Chausa, Dashehari and Langra
Mundappa, Olour, Pairi
Madhya Pradesh
Alphonso, Bombai, Langra and mostly seedling types
Alphonso, Kesar, Mankurad, Mulgoa, Pairi
Baneshan, Langra, Neelum, Suvarnarekha and mostly seedling types
Dashehari, Langra, Chausa
Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari and Langra
Uttar Pradesh
Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fajri, Langra, Safeda Lucknow, Chausa
West Bengal
Bombai, Himsagar, Kishan Bhog, Langra

         Characteristics of some important Indian varieties are as follows:

1. Alphonso: This is the leading commercial variety of Maharashtra state and one of the choicest varieties of the country. This variety is known by different names in different regions, viz. Badami, Gundu, Khader, Appas, Happus and Kagdi Happus. The fruit of this variety is medium in size, ovate oblique in shape and orange yellow in colour. The fruit quality is excellent and keeping quality is good. It has been found good for canning purpose. It is a mid season variety

2. Bangalora : It is a commercial variety of south India. The fruit size is medium to large, its shape is oblong with necked base and colour is golden yellow. Fruit quality is poor. Keeping quality is very good. It is widely used for processing. It is a mid season variety.

3. Banganpalli: It is a commercial variety of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and also known as Chapta, Safeda, Baneshan and Chaptai. Fruit is large in size and obliquely oval in shape. The colour of the fruit is golden yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety and is good for canning.

4. Bombai : It is a commercial variety from Bihar state. It is also known as Malda in West Bengal and Bihar. Fruit size is medium, shape ovate-oblique and colour yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. It is an early season variety.

5. Bombay Green: It is commonly grown in north India due to its early ripening habit. It is also called Malda in Northern India. Fruit size is medium, shape ovate oblong and fruit colour is spinach green. Fruit quality is good and keeping quality is medium. It is a very early variety.

6. Dashehari: This variety derives its name from the village Dashehari near Lucknow. It is a leading commercial variety of north India and one of the best varieties of our country. The fruit size is medium, shape is oblong to oblong oblique and fruit colour is yellow. Fruit quality is excellent keeping quality is good. It is a mid season variety and is mainly used for table purpose.

7. Fajri : This variety is commonly grown in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. Fruit is very large, obliquely oval in shape. Fruit colour is light chrome. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. This is a late season variety.

8. Fernnadin : This is one of the oldest varieties of Bombay. Some people think that this variety originated in Goa. Fruit size is medium to large, fruit shape is oval to obliquely oval and fruit colour is yellow with a red blush on shoulders. Fruit quality and keeping quality are medium. It is a late season variety mostly used for table purpose.

9. Himsagar : This variety is indigenous to Bengal. This is one of the choicest varieties of Bengal and has gained extensive popularity. Fruit is of medium size, ovate to ovate oblique. Fruit colour is yellow. Both fruit and keeping quality are good. It is an early variety.

10. Kesar : This is a leading variety of Gujarat with a red blush on the shoulders. Fruit size is medium, shape oblong and keeping quality is good. It is an early variety.

11. Kishen Bhog : This variety is indigenous to Murshidabad in West Bengal. Fruit size is medium, fruit shape is roundish oblique and fruit colour is yellow. Fruit quality and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety.

12. Langra : This variety is indigenous to Varanasi area of Uttar Pradesh. It is extensively grown in northern India. Fruit is of medium size, ovate shape and lettuce green colour. Fruit quality is good. Keeping quality is medium. It is a mid season variety.

13. Mankurad : This variety is of commercial importance in Goa and in the neighbouringRatnagiri district of Maharashtra. The variety develops black spots on the skin in rainy season. Fruit is medium in size, ovate in shape and yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good. Keeping quality is poor. It is a mid season variety.

14. Mulgoa : This is a commercial variety of southern India. It is quite popular among the lovers of mango owing to high quality of its fruit. Fruit is large in size, roundish oblique in shape and yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good. Keeping quality is good. It is a late season variety.
15. Neelum : This is a commercial variety indigenous to Tamil Nadu. It is an ideal variety for transporting to distant places owing to its high keeping quality. Fruit is medium in size, ovate oblique in shape and saffron yellow in colour. Fruit quality is good and keeping quality is very good. It is a late season variety.

16. Chausa : This variety originated as a chance seedling in the orchard of a Talukadar ofSandila district Hardoi, U.P. It is commonly grown in northern parts of India due to its characteristic flavour and taste. Fruit is large in size, ovate to oval oblique in shape and light yellow in colour. Fruit quality is good keeping quality is medium. it is a late variety.

17. Suvarnarekha : This is a commercial variety of Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. Other synonyms of this variety are Sundari, Lal Sundari. Fruit is medium in size and ovate oblong in shape. Colour of the fruit is light cadmium with a blush of jasper red. Fruit quality is medium and keeping quality is good. It is an early variety.

18. Vanraj : It is a highly prized variety of Vadodra district of Gujarat and fetches good returns. Fruit is medium in size, ovate oblong in shape and colour is deep chrome with a blush of jasper red on the shoulders. Fruit quality and keeing quality good. It is a mid season variety.

19. Zardalu : This variety is indigenous to Murshidabad in West Bengal.  Fruit size is medium, oblong to obliquely oblong and golden yellow in colour. Fruit quality is very good. Keeping quality is medium. It is a mid season variety.

          A number of hybrid varieties are also becoming popular. Some of such varieties are:
1. Amarapali : This hybrid is from a cross of Dashehari x Neelum. It is dwarf, regular bearing and late maturing variety. The variety is suitable for high density planting as about 1600 plants may be planted in a hectare. It yields on an average 16 tonnes / hectare.

2. Mallika : It is from a cross of Neelum x Dashehari. Its fruit is large in size, oblong elliptical and in shape cadmium yellow in colour. Fruit and keeping quality are good. It is a mid season variety.

3. Arka Aruna : It is a hybrid between Baganpalli and Alphonso. It is dwarf regular bearing, precocious. Fruits are large having attractive skin colour with red blush free from spongy tissue.

4. Arka Puneet : It is a hybrid between Alphonso and Banganpalli. It regular and prolific bearer. Fruits are medium sized having attractive skin colour with red blush and free from spongy tissue. Excellent keeping quality.

5. Arka Anmol : This hybrid is from a cron of Alphonso and Janardhan Pasand. It is regular bearer and good yielder. Fruits are medium sized having uniform yellow peel colour, excellent keeping quality and free from spongy tissue.

6. Arka Neelkiran : It is a hybrid between Alphonso and Neelum. It is , regular bearering late season variety with medium sized fruits having attractive red blush free from spongy tissue.

7. Ratna : This hybrid is from a cross of Neelum x Alphonso. Tree vigorous, precautions, fruits are medium sized, attractive in colour and free from spongy tissue.

8. Sindhu : It is from a cross of Ratna x Alphonso. It is regular bearer, fruits medium sized, free from spongy tissue with high pulp to stone ratio and very thin and small stone.

9. Au Rumani : It is from a cross of Rumani x Mulgoa. It is precocious, heavy and regular bearing with large fruits having yellow cadmium skin colour.

10. Manjeera : This hybrid is from a cross of Rumani x Neelum. It is dwarf, regular and prolific bearer with firm and fibre less flesh.

Free Essays for Competitive Exams-Lighthouses and the Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships

Lighthouses and the Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships

In the vast ocean, a mariner is not sure of his position unless he is guided by some signal from the land/space. The Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships (DGLL) provides the service to enable the mariner to know his position with respect to a fixed point on the land with the help of Visual Aids to Navigation such as lighthouses, light vessels, buoys, beacons and Radio Aids to Navigation like Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), Radars, Radar Beacons (Racons), Automatic Identification System (AIS) etc.

General and Local Lighthouses:

The Lighthouses are categorized into two types viz. General and Local Lighthouse depending upon the marine traffic they serve.

The General Lighthouses are intended to serve the purpose of general navigation along the coast of India. These are declared "General" by the Central Government by Notification in the official gazette. The administration, maintenance and up-keep of general Aids to Navigation are the responsibility of the DGLL.

The Local Lighthouses serve the purpose for the navigation of marine traffic in the port areas and approaches to harbours and narrow waterways. The maintenance and management of local aids to navigation is the responsibility of the local authorities like Maritime State/Boards/Major Ports/Minor Ports. However, as per the Lighthouse Act, the DGLL inspects local aids to marine navigation, makes such inquiries in respect of management of these local aids to navigation and suggests ways for improvement.


(i) Prior to 1927 there was no uniform system of management of Lighthouse services in British India which included present day Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh and also various Princely States. As a first step to centralize the Administration of Lighthouses, the government decided to administer about 32 Lighthouses in the six Lighthouse Districts. viz. Aden, Karachi, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta and Rangoon. The Lighthouse Act was passed in 1927 and came into force in April 1929. However, after passing of the Act, the administration of Lighthouses in Aden District was transferred to Her Majesty’s Government in the U.K. The Government of India continued to administer the Lighthouses in Persian Gulf financed from the Persian Gulf Lighting Services Fund.

(ii) As a result of reforms introduced, Burma (Myanmar) was separated out from rest of India. But Government of India continued to administer the General Lighthouses in Burma under the terms of an introductory agreement between the two Governments.

 (iii) During the World War II, the activities of the Directorate were very limited as several Lighthouses had to be doused in order to prevent the enemies from making use of them.


After independence, the Karachi district and Lighthouses presently in Bangladesh were separated out. Thus the Directorate was left with three Districts with their Headquarters at Calcutta (Kolkata), Madras (Chennai) & Bombay (Mumbai). About 50 Lighthouses, which were earlier under the jurisdictions of Maritime Princely States, became direct responsibility of the Central Government since 1950, resulting in creation of Saurastra & Kachchh (now Jamnagar Lighthouse Distt.). In sixties, two new Lighthouse districts at Port Blair (1960-61) and Cochin (1969-70) were established. One more Lighthouse district at Visakhapatnam has been set up in the year 2001 for better management and administration of the Aids to Navigation along the coast of Andhra Pradesh.

In order to cope with post independence growing activities, the Lighthouse Department which was under the Ministry of Commerce and later part of Directorate General of Shipping was re-constituted into a separate Department as the Department of Lighthouses & Lightships under the Ministry of Transport. It was again renamed in the year 2002 as Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships (DGLL) under the Ministry of Surface Transport - now the Ministry of Shipping.