Monday, 30 September 2013

Free Essays for Competitive Exams-Special Economic Zones in India

SEZ in India
(Special Economic Zones in India)

    India was one of the first countries in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965. In order to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Policy was announced in April 2000.
   The SEZ Act, 2005, was an important bill to be passed by the Government of India in order to instill confidence in investors and signal the Government's commitment to a stable SEZ policy regime and with a view to impart stability to the SEZ regime thereby generating greater economic activity and employment through their establishment, a comprehensive draft SEZ Bill prepared after extensive discussions with the stakeholders.
  The main objectives of the SEZ Act are:
(a) Generation of additional economic activity 
(b) Promotion of exports of goods and services; 
(c) Promotion of investment from domestic and foreign sources; 
(d) Creation of employment opportunities; 
(e) Development of infrastructure facilities;
It is expected that this will trigger a large flow of foreign and domestic investment in SEZs, in infrastructure and productive capacity, leading to generation of additional economic activity and creation of employment opportunities.
      As on 17.07.13, a total 576   SEZs have  been approved by the Government with Andhra Pradesh having 109 SEZs. During this time, 102 SEZs have been received green signal in Maharashtra followed by Tamilnadu 67, Karnataka 61 and UttarPradesh 31. Among the Eastern states, West Bengal got 18 SEZs approvals.
Under the approved SEZs, 353 units have been set up in Semi-conductor group, 21 Engineering, 32 Bio-Tech and 23 Pharma and Chemical group. Gems and Gewellery sector also occupies  largechunk of SEZ section with 13 units.
There are six Special Economic Zones operational in India. They are,
Kandla Special Economic Zone
Cochin Special Economic Zone- 93 units are operational under this zone
 Madras Special Economic Zone
Visakhapatnam Special Economic Zone- 106 units are operational under this zone
Falta Special Economic Zone- Six units are operational under this zone
 Noida Special Economic Zone- 20 units are operational in this zone
The total exports from the SEZs during the last seven years and the current financial year are as under:

Financial Year
Exports from SEZs
 (Value  in Rs. Crore)

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

Someone asked Buddha: “What is Poison…?  He said simply: “Everything Excess in life is poison!”

Sunday, 29 September 2013

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

Sometimes you got to laugh through the tears, smile through the pain so that you can live through the sorrow!

Saturday, 28 September 2013

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

The best pair in the world is smile & cry…
They won’t meet each other at a time…
If they meet...that is the best moment in your life. 

Friday, 27 September 2013

General Knowledge-Supreme Court Judgement: Citizens have right to cast negative vote, to reject all candidates contesting Poll

Supreme Court Judgement:  Citizens have right to cast negative vote, to reject all candidates contesting Poll

In a landmark verdict, the Supreme Court today held that citizens have the right to cast negative vote rejecting all candidates contesting the polls. The apex court directed the Election Commission to provide 'none of the above options' at the end of the list of candidates in electronic voting machines (EVMs) and ballot papers to allow voters to reject those contesting polls.

A Bench headed by Chief Justice P Sathasivam said that negative voting would foster purity and vibrancy of elections and ensure wide participation as people who are not satisfied with the candidates in the fray would also turn up to express their opinion rejecting contestants. It said that the concept of negative voting would bring a systemic change in the election process as the political parties will be forced to project clean candidates in polls.

The Bench noted that the concept of negative voting is prevalent in 13 countries and even in India, Parliamentarians are given an option to press the button for abstaining while voting takes place in the House. The court said, right to reject candidates in elections is part of fundamental right to freedom of speech and expression given by the Constitution to Indian citizens. It said that democracy is all about choice and significance of right of citizens to cast negative voting is massive.

The apex court passed the order on a PIL filed by an NGO, People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL). The latest verdict is part of series of judgements passed by the apex court on the election process. Earlier, the apex court had restrained people in custody from contesting elections. The apex court has also ruled that MPs and MLAs would stand disqualified after being convicted of serious crimes. The government has brought an ordinance seeking to negate the court's judgement striking down a provision in the electoral law that protected convicted lawmakers from immediate disqualification

The Central Government today said that it will study and examine the implications of the Supreme Court order on inclusion of Right to Reject button in electronic voting machine.  

Quotable Quote-Message of the day

When someone is so sweet to you, don't expect they will be like that all the time. Because even the sweetest chocolate has an expiry date.  

Thursday, 26 September 2013

Free essays for Competitive Exams-Water Conservation in Industries

Water Conservation in Industries

The population of India is estimated to reach between 1.5 - 1.8 billion by year 2050. To avoid our country from becoming a water scarce country, availability of 3060 billion m3 fresh water is required. The average annual surface water flows in India has been estimated as 1869 billion m3 of which only 690 billion m3 can be utilized considering monsoon climate and topographical and geological reasons. The available groundwater resource due to various recharges is 432 billion m3. The country will be water stressed even if the total available water i.e. 2301 billion m3 is taken into account. Ensuring uninterrupted supply of water of adequate quality and quantity at affordable cost will be the biggest challenge for the municipalities and industries due to the huge demand and pollution caused by discharge of untreated or partially treated used waters.

In recent years, with the development of industries, increase in population and improved living standard, demand of water has remarkably increased. Municipalities are not able to provide uninterrupted water supply to the citizens. The communities in many Indian cities have to purchase drinking water at a high cost of Rs. 50 – 150 per m3. Since water has become a scarce commodity, availability of water of adequate quality and quantity at affordable cost is possibly the biggest challenge faced by the industries today. It is necessary for all the industries to positively implement all kind of programs and measures for effective utilization of water resources.

Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd., Chennai for example have invested large sum of money in desalination of Sea water and in laying a pipeline to convey the desalinated water all the way to their refinery. Earlier, when faced with a severe water shortage, the refinery was the first to invest in a plant to recover water from treated municipal sewage and effluent from the refinery. Madras Fertilizers Limited followed their example. In Mumbai, Rashtriya Chemical Fertilizers have also set up a plant to recover water from municipal sewage and used the recovered water for cooling applications.

Water can no longer be taken for granted.  It needs to be managed judiciously through measures to conserve, recover, and reuse, especially in industries that consume large quantities of water. Water is used in the industry for a number of applications that include cooling, steam production to generate power and other process applications besides drinking and sanitation.

Water Audit

The first step in Water Conservation and Management Programme is comprehensive water Audit to arrive at a realistic water balance for the entire factory and colony. Water audits at regular intervals help the management to take stock of the situation and act before the problem escalates and threatens closure due to non-availability of water. The objectives of carrying out a water audit is not only to identify areas of excessive  use (and its abuse) but also assess the quality of water being supplied for each application and compare it with the actual requirement and optimize the cost of treating water. This involves following exercise-

 Measurement of water consumption at user points by calibrated instruments. Flow through closed pipes can be measured by an Ultrasonic flow measuring instrument and flow through open channels through V-Notch weirs.
 The quality and quantity of effluents generated from each section should also be assessed. Conscious efforts shall be made to effect savings in cost of treating the effluent.
 The next step is to establish bench marks for water consumption based on international practices for similar industries and identify areas of excess consumption.
 An action plan should then be drawn for reducing the consumption of water in those areas. With good housekeeping discipline and perseverance it should be possible to achieve the results.

Conservation of Water for Cooling

A major portion of industrial water is utilized for cooling applications in majority of industries and hence provides an opportunity to conserve the water by optimizing the operations of cooling towers and following the best practices as given below-

 It is essential to check the cooling water treatment programme, which enables us to operate the tower at optimum cycles of concentration. The quantity of make-up water decreases significantly with increasing cycles of concentration. Water meters should be installed at cooling water make-up as well as blow down line.
 Use of cooling water for other purposes like floor washing should be stopped. There should be no overflows from the basin.
  One should also look for any leak through the bottom floor of the tower basin and if detected the leak should be plugged during the annual shut down.
Loss of water due to evaporation is around 2% of the water in circulation and hence in areas of water scarcity, the feasibility of using air cooled towers should be explored.
Side stream filtration should be adopted to keep cooling water free of suspended solids. Backwash water from side stream filter can be recovered by installing a plate type clarifier. The quantum of water recovered can be significant in large industries like fertilizer, steel etc.

Water Conservation in Pre-treatment Plant

Almost all the plants utilizing surface water will have a clarifier and filter beds.  Blow down from the clarifier must be treated through the sludge thickener and sludge dewatering unit (centrifuge / filter press). The clear water from sludge thickener and the filtrate from sludge dewatering unit should be pumped back to the clarifier. This will not only help in water conservation but also reduces the cost incurred in sludge handling and disposal.

The entire quantity of water used for backwashing the filters must be collected and returned to the clarifier.

Water Conservation in Softening Plants

Softening plants offer scope both for water conservation as well as for a reduction in salt consumption by opting for salt recycling. Salt recycle is effectively used in almost all the power stations in Maharashtra as the entire quantity of water used for cooling is softened and the salt consumption is high. For salt recycling, it will be necessary to install an additional brine measuring tank (BMT 2) identical to the existing one (BMT 1) and modify the frontal piping.

Part of the water used for slow rinsing and practically the entire quantity used for final rinsing can be recovered and reused partly for preparation of salt solution and partly for slow rinse. Salt recovery can be made by collecting the latter half of the effluent during salt injection in a separate brine measuring tank and using it to partially regenerate the resin during the next cycle.

Water Conservation in Demineralization Plant

Demineralization by the ion exchange process generates strong effluents which require dilution with fresh water or other streams low in dissolved solids prior to discharge. However water can be recovered from the effluents generated in a DM plant by installing a water recovery plant for reuse in the plant. Some plants use the strongly acidic effluents in cooling water for pH control in place of acid. There is considerable scope to conserve water in DM plant which can be achieved by following measures-

 Almost all the final rinse water during Mixed Bed regeneration can be recycled back to the filtered water tank. Part of the water used for final rinsing can be recycled back to the raw water tank as soon as its conductively reaches the value equal to that of raw water.
 Good housekeeping can significantly contribute to conservation of water in a DM plant. Leaky valves and taps must be fixed immediately. Water flowing through pH and conductivity sensors must be routed to the raw water tank.
Whenever rinse water volumes increase, the reasons for long rinse should be ascertained. If it is established that the problem is due to fouling agent in water, action must be taken to fix the problem either by addition of some equipment or change over to non-fouling resins or both.
 Presence of non-reactive (colloidal) silica in boiler feed water high pressure boilers may result in increased blow-down. In case presence of excessive amount of colloidal silica is suspected it may be prudent to remove it from boiler feed water by installing an Ultra filtration unit after the Mixed Bed.  In case the raw water is high on organics as well, the ultra-filtration unit may be located ahead of MB unit to take care of both issues.

Treatment of Condensate

Conservation of condensate not only saves water but also the huge cost incurred in high purity water production and chemical conditioning. This can be achieved by arresting the leakages in the lines and installing suitable treatment units (condensate polishing units) for removal of undesirable components. Condensates with traces of hydrocarbons can be treated through the use of Oil Coalescers or specially designed Activated Carbon Filters

Effluent Treatment

Use of water in the industry produces an effluent which needs to be treated before it can be discharged into a public sewer or a receiving stream. Treatment of effluent is necessary to protect the receiving water bodies and ensure safe water availability to the downstream habitation. Moreover, the effluent after minimal treatment can be utilized for low end applications. Efforts should be made to treat, recycle, and reuse the effluent in the premises so that the industry could approach towards zero liquid discharge concepts and uninterrupted water supply for production can be ensured. Often it is possible to recover a valuable by product for reuse in the process and remaining effluent is now more amenable for recovery of water economically.

In Tirupur, group of industries had installed a combined effluent treatment plant for treating their effluents with an option to recover the salt (Na2SO4) and water which is again recycled back to the process. This approach not only solved a potential problem of high TDS effluent disposal but also resulted in practically ‘Zero-Discharge’ with significant savings in the cost of treatment of effluent.

Water Conservation in Offices and Residential Colony

As far as possible, electronically operated proximity devices or at least press to open type of valves should be provided to reduce wastage. These types of installations result in water consumption of around 30%.

Supply of potable water to residential colony and other user points should be under gravity by installing water tanks on roof tops. Supply under gravity (through overhead storage tanks) will minimize wastage through splashing. Again restricting the supply to fix periods will also help in conserving water.

Almost all colonies housing the factory employees will have a dedicated sewage treatment plant. Water can be recovered by installing a tertiary treatment plant and can used for low end applications like green belt development, gardening, flushing the toilets etc., thus conserving fresh water.  Needless to say this will involve separate storage and plumbing to ensure that there is no accidental contamination with potable water in other lines like washbasins and shower fountains. The recovered water can also be used as cooling tower make-up by installing membrane Bio reactor that will produce clear filtered water.

Rain Water Harvesting

Rain water harvesting is yet another opportunity for the industries to ensure that the ground water gets recharged and the bore wells do not run dry. The system is relatively inexpensive and the benefits are many. Water falling on the roof top is collected through channels, filtered and infiltration wells.

Water is a scarce resource and it needs to be treated with all the respect it deserves. Conservation, recovery and reuse must be practiced by all industries on a continuous basis to ensure availability of adequate quantity of fresh water for use. With the available technologies the fresh water consumption can be minimized and is not very much difficult. Future efforts must be to maximize recycling of water by adopting the latest technologies available.

Free Essays for Competitive Exams-WHO South-East Asia Regional Organisation: A Drive to Improve Health and Change Lives

WHO South-East Asia Regional Organisation: A Drive to Improve Health and Change Lives

World Health Organisation South-East Asia Regional Organisation (WHO-SEARO) with the objective of ‘Highest possible level of health attainment by all people’ stands as an organisation with multiple achievements to its credit. SEARO, which is one of the six regional organisations of WHO has led to some remarkable achievements like the eradication of smallpox, improvement in life-expectancy, reduction in infant and maternal mortality rates, eradicating polio and guinea-worm disease as well as eliminating leprosy.
SEARO covers many health programmes like Antimicrobial resistance, Blood safety and Laboratory Technology, HIV/AIDS, Leprosy, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Vector Borne and Neglected Tropical diseases, Child and Adolescent health, Immunization and Vaccine development, Making Pregnancy Safer and Reproductive Health, Nutrition. The organisation also involved in health system development activities and sustainable development and healthy environmental programme.

The significance of the South East Asian Region lies in the fact that 1.79 billion people reside here, which forms 26.4% of the global population. The Region registers the lowest total expenditure on health which is about 3.8% of the GDP and is confronted with several health related issues despite the socio-economic progress. The high level of deaths due to diseases and the number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCD) is on the rise and the occurrence of communicable diseases, in particular infectious diseases. The region has more than 27% of disease burden on NCDs.  Diseases like tuberculosis and malaria and the formidable challenges posed by HIV/AIDS add a new dimension to the health scenario of this Region.
WHO SEARO countries are working to overcome the challenges in the path of health achievement to the highest possible level. India’s work in this direction is commendable. In the recent SEARO Health Ministers Meeting held at New Delhi, the Health Minister of India       Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad, said that India has been substantially bringing down the prices of medicines; a case in point being the dramatic reduction in costs of HIV/AIDS treatment. India is a hub of high quality, affordable drugs and is being called the “Pharmacy of the World”. ShriAzad said that India will be happy to share the experience of undertaking a series of path breaking reforms in the field of medical education and training because such exchange would result in this region becoming a global knowledge bank for health care. 
WHO Director General, Dr. Margaret Chan commended the efforts of Indian Government in this direction. The Director General said that Indian Government and its Health Minister are fully dedicated to improving the health scenario of the country.
The South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization was established in1948. It was the first of WHO’s six regional organisation. There are 11 Member States in the WHO South-East Asia Region- India (1948), Bangladesh (1972), Bhutan (1982), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1973), Indonesia (1950), Maldives (1965), Myanmar(1948), Nepal( 1953), Sri Lanka(1948), Thailand(1947), Timor-Leste(2002)
Headquarters of SEARO are in New Delhi, India. SEARO is headed by a Regional Director (RD) who is elected by the members of the SEARO countries. The Regional Director has a term of five years and, though elections are held, customarily, the RD gets a second term.

                    Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh has been elected as the new Regional Director for WHO South-East Asia Region recently during the 31st Meeting of Health Ministers in New Delhi.

Important Functions of SEARO
In order to achieve its objective, the functions of the Organization are:

-          To establish and maintain effective collaboration with the specialized agencies, governmental health administrations, professional groups and such other organizations as may be deemed appropriate.

-          To assist Governments, upon request, in strengthening health services, furnish appropriate technical assistance and in emergencies, necessary aid upon the request or acceptance of Governments of this region.

-          To stimulate and advance work to eradicate epidemic, endemic and other diseases.

-          To promote in co-operation with other specialized agencies where necessary, the improvement of nutrition, housing, sanitation, recreation, economic or working conditions and other aspects of environmental hygiene.

-          To promote co-operation among scientific and professional groups which contribute to the advancement of health.

-          To propose conventions, agreements and regulations, and make recommendations with respect to international health matters and to perform such duties as may be assigned thereby to the Organization and are consistent with its objective.

-          To study and report on, in co-operation with other specialized agencies where necessary, administrative and social techniques affecting public health and medical care from preventive and curative points of view, including hospital services and social security and provide information, counsel and assistance in the field of health.

Recent Developments

Recently India hosted the 31stMeeting of Ministers of Health of Countries of the WHO-SEARO and 66thSession of the WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia at New Delhi. Important outcomes of this annual meeting are ‘New Delhi Declaration on High Blood Pressure’ and Election of Regional Director of WHO-SEARO.

The organisation showed its commitment to:

-          Accord high priority to the prevention and control of high blood pressure and strive towards achieving the global voluntary targets and indicators for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, included in the global monitoring framework and endorsed by the Sixty-sixth World Health Assembly, including 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of hypertension by 2025.
-          Provide leadership and promote active collaborations among key multi-sectoral stakeholders in society such as education, agriculture, finance, communications, trade, transport, urban planning, environment, sports and youth affairs, in order to create health promoting environments that empower individuals, families and communities to make healthy choices and lead healthy lives.
-          Develop, strengthen and implement national multi-sectoral policies and action plans to promote physical activity and healthy diet, and reduce exposure to tobacco and harmful use of alcohol.
-          Continue to implement the Political Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases, of September 2011, as well as the WHO 2013–2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases with emphasis on: implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC); WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; WHO Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol; and WHO Set of recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children.
-          implement national salt reduction strategies such as creating public awareness and health education through mass media, food labelling, and regulation of the food industry in order to reduce salt levels in processed food.
-          Create healthy environments by adopting effective national legislation for 100% tobacco smoke-free environments in all indoor workplaces, public transport, indoor public places and other public places consistent with Article 8 (Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke) of the WHO FCTC; promoting access to healthy diet; providing opportunities for physical activity at workplaces, schools and other educational institutions as well as creating facilities for physical activity in public and private settings.
-          Promote universal access to cost-effective prevention and treatment through generic medicines and care for integrated management of non-communicable diseases including hypertension through a primary health care approach.
-          Strengthen health systems that support primary health care, to ensure an adequate and well-trained workforce, and the availability of affordable, safe, effective and quality medicines and technologies for prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases including hypertension.
-          Promote access to cost-effective, affordable and quality medicines for all, including through the use, to the full, of the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement which provides flexibility for that purpose.
-          Foster the development and transfer of technology to developing countries, on mutually agreed terms aligned with national priorities.
-          Build and strengthen experience-sharing mechanisms among Member States for capacity building
-          Strengthen national health information systems, for effective surveillance and monitoring of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors including hypertension, and to build national capacity for quality research and development
-          Provide adequate and sustained resources through domestic and external channels, and explore innovative financing mechanisms for achieving universal health coverage for integrated prevention and control of non-communicable diseases including hypertension

During the meeting discussions were held on the Yogyakarta Declaration on Ageing and Health 2012 and the health in the Post-2015 Development Agenda, as the 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals is approaching.

Apart from Ageing and Health, the recommendations by 31st Meeting of Health Ministers of SEARO  pertain to the implementation of International Health Regulations, Non-communicable diseases including mental health and neurological disorders; The role of WHO in managing emergencies; Health workforce training and education; Pandemic Influenza Preparedness ;and Challenges in polio eradication. 

Some of the key issues discussed during the session of the WHO Regional Committee are: Universal health coverage (UHC), Targets for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and Measles elimination & rubella control. Other Issues like WHO reforms and Programme Budget matters, Progress Report on Malaria and Progress Reports on selected Regional Committee resolutions were also deliberate upon during the meeting.

Over 70,700 children died of Measles in 11 countries of SEARO in 2011. The member states of the Region committed to eliminating Measles and controlling Rubella and congenital syndrome (CRS) by 2020.To achieve the goal of measles elimination and rubella control, the Governments will need to achieve and maintain 95% population immunity against these diseases within each district through routine immunization and/or supplementary campaigns. Countries will also need to develop and sustain a sensitive and timely case-based measles and rubella/CRS surveillance system. The regional network of accredited measles and rubella laboratories needs to be expanded and strengthened for achieving the target.

The New Delhi Declaration on High Blood Pressure was adopted by the Health Ministers in 31st Meeting of Ministers of Health of Countries of the WHO-SEARO and 66th Session of the WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia in New Delhi. The Health Ministers committed to accord high priority to the prevention and control of high blood pressure and to strive towards measurable reduction in the prevalence of hypertension in the region by 2025. Hypertension is the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide, causing 9 million deaths each year. In South-East Asia, every third adult is affected by hypertension, with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. The poor are disproportionately affected by hypertension. 

Speaking on the occasion, the Health & Family welfare Minister of India Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad said the Delhi Declaration on High Blood Pressure shall not only help in taking the national programme forward but also articulate the commitment of the Health Ministers of the South-East Asia region to the way-forward to control this disease and NCDs. The WHO, Director General, Dr Margaret Chan said that each year there are 9.4 million deaths due to heart disease and stroke. So, lifestyle changes and medicines are very important.
The South East Asian region has a number of constraints like lack of financial and human resources in many countries in the region. Several countries in the region are grappling with the lack of technology, infrastructure and an appropriate health policy framework. These obstacles pose a serious challenge to the promotion of public health, particularly in the context of achieving health-related Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
Despite all these challenges and constraints the efforts of WHO SEARO are remarkable. There is no denying the fact that the World Health Organisation South-East Asia Regional Organisation (WHO-SEARO) is an important organisation playing a great role to eradicate all the challenges regarding health in the region.

Quotable Quote-Message of the day

Do not count what you have lost. Just see what you have now, because past never comes back but sometimes future can give you back your lost things! 

Wednesday, 25 September 2013

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

There are Four Questions of value in Life....
What is sacred?
Of what is the spirit made?
What is worth living for, and what is worth dying for?
The answer to each is the same.
Only Love 

Tuesday, 24 September 2013

General Knowledge-Quiz type questions

General Knowledge

1. Currently, how many Internet users are there in India

A.130 Million
B.140 Million
C.150 million
D 160 million

Answer: C

2.Who was the head of the panel to make Heads of regulatory bodies should be accountable to Parliament

A. M.Damodaran
B. K.V.Kamath
C. Anand Mahindra
D Kumar Mangalam Birla

Answer: A

3. Which one of the following countries has maximum Unemployment rate?
      A.   Nigeria
B.   South Africa  
C.   Spain
D.  Greece

Answer: D

4. Which one of the following Automobiles Company made most number of vehicles in 2013?
      A.   General Motors
B.   Toyota  
C.   Volkswagen
D.  Hyundai

Answer: B

5. Factors taken for Happiness Index are
i) Governance
ii) Economic Condition
iii) Corruption level
iv)  Security of the Citizens

Select the Correct answer from the following codes

A. I, ii and iii only
B.   ii, iii and iv only
C.   ii and iv only
D.  All the above

Answer: D  

6. According to UNO, which one of the following country is the Happiest nation in the World?

             A.   Norway
B.   Switzerland  
C.   Denmark
D.  Sweden  

Answer: C

7. According to UNDP, which one of the following country has the highest debt nation in the World?

A.  Ukraine
B.   Venezuela  
C.   Turkey
D.  Hungary   

Answer: A

8. Which country in the World the petrol is sold in cheapest price?

A.  Saudi Arabia
B.   Venezuela  
C.   Egypt
D.  Qatar    

Answer: B

9. Which country in the World one can start a business easily?

A.  New Zealand  
B.   Canada  
C.   Australia
D.  Macedonia     

Answer: A

10. The First Stamp released by Independent India was?

A. 21st November 1950  
B.   21st November 1947
C.   21st January 1948
D.  21st January 1950     

Answer: B