Saturday, 30 June 2012

Quptable Quote-Message of the Day

"Lovable persons are like injections.They may give you sometime pain but the intention is always to cure your problem"

Friday, 29 June 2012

Quotable Quote-Message of the Day

If you want to enjoy? Always think, today is the first day. If you want to achieve something, Always think today is the last day.

Thursday, 28 June 2012

Free Essays for Competitive Exams-National Overseas Scholarship

National Overseas Scholarship: an Opportunity for the Marginalized to Dream Big
Could a small farmer belonging to scheduled caste in a backward village in West Bengal ever dream that one day his son would be able to go abroad for higher education? Thanks to the National Overseas Scholarship scheme, his son Shamik Pally is today doing PhD in human genetics from Leister University.
To ensure that economic and social status does not come in the way of fulfilling the dreams of the students who have the merit and ability, the Centre has initiated several scholarships, including the National Scholarship Scheme. Today many selected students are pursuing their ambitions doing Masters and PhDs at prestigious universities abroad. Ravindra Kumar and Sunil R Vaidya are among them.
Born in Nanfar Bazar village in Saran district of Bihar, Ravindra Kumar’s grandfather was from Pasi community of toddy sellers. His father was a simple bus conductor when Ravindra was born. Later he moved to a job in Patna where Ravindra got a chance to go to a middle school and later topped in high school. He did his higher secondary education from Science College, Patna, Bihar and then Masters in Civil Engineering from IIT Roorkee. After that Ravindra applied for National Overseas Fellowship and got selected. Though he got admission in the top most Imperial College London, he chose to go to Edinburgh Napier University.
Today Ravindra Kumar is a senior scientist with Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi. He says that National Overseas Scholarship is a wonderful scheme that provides exposure and opportunities that a person born in a poor family belonging to scheduled caste could not have imagined.
Another Awardee Sunil R Vaidya is from Ambajogai Taluka of Beed District of Maharashtra State. His father was primary school teacher but lost his job. Sunil says that as a result, his family had to go through a lot of hardship for more than ten years before his father got back his job. Sunil’s mother had no option but do manual labour to take care of the seven children in the family. With great difficulty Sunil and his two brothers managed to get education. Today SunilVaidya is serving as Scientist-D and Measles Group Leader at National Institute of Virology in Pune. Sunil who did his Masters in Microbiology, was awarded the National Overseas Scholarship during 2007-2011. He studied for his PhD at internationally reputed Health Protection Agency (HPA) in London which is affiliated research centre to the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK. Vaidya has submitted his PhD thesis and is awaiting its outcome. His area of research is Virus diseases of public health importance like measles, mumps, and rubella and hepatitis viruses. Sunil says that he would like to dedicate his life doing research in public health virology.
National Overseas Scholarship
The National Overseas Scholarship scheme was initiated in the year 2002. Under the scheme financial assistance is provided to the selected candidates for pursuing Master level courses and PhD abroad in the specified fields of study in Engineering, Management, Pure Sciences, Agricultural Science, and Medicine. Thirty scholarships are awarded every year under the scheme. Twenty seven of them are for students belonging to scheduled castes, two fordenotified, nomadic and semi nomadic tribes and one for landless agricultural labourers and traditional artisans.
To encourage women candidates, 30 per cent of the awards for each year are earmarked for women candidates. However, in case adequate number of women candidates are not available as per the stipulations of the Scheme or found unsuitable for selection by the Selection Committee, then the unutilized slots are utilized by selecting suitable male candidates.
Students who get admission in Universities in the United States under this National Overseas scheme are paid 14,000 Dollars annually as maintenance allowance and 9,000 Pounds for those who get admission in universities in UK. Apart from fares from their home town to the destination of their study, an annual contingency allowance is also paid by the Government. This contingency allowance is for books, essential apparatus, study tour, travel cost for attending subject related conferences, workshops etc or typing and binding of thesis etc. The contingency amount is 1375 dollars a year for students in USA and 1000 pounds per annum for students studying in UK. The candidates are also provided journey allowance and given equipment allowance.
The necessary qualification for doing Masters and PhD from abroad under this scholarship is First class or 60 per cent marks or equivalent grade in relevant bachelors’ and Masters’ Degrees respectively. The scholarship for PhD course is for four years while for Masters in the specified field is three years. The candidates who apply for the scholarship are chosen by a selection committee. The selected candidates are required to obtain admission and join only an accredited university or institution abroad within three years after their selection. Only those candidates are eligible whose total income from all sources or that of his/her parents/guardians does not exceed 25,000 rupees a month. Only one child in a family can get this one time award Also the beneficiary of this scholarship on return to India has to remain in the country for at least five years and is also required to serve the Government, if he or she continues to be in Government service after return to India, as one was before going abroad with award under the Scheme.
Effort is also made to get the feedback while the selected candidates are studying abroad. The Indian Missions abroad have to obtain six monthly progress reports from the university or institution where the awardee is pursuing his or her studies. This is to prevent the misuse of this scheme under which lakhs of rupees are spent every year on each of the selected students.
An Awardee of this scholarship scheme, Amit Kumar is pursuing his studies in the University of Reading, considered one among the top ten research oriented universities in the world. Amit had the courage not only to dream big but has the determination to realize his ambition. He wants to do something that would benefit the humanity and bring glory to his country. Amit is trying to design and develop nano anti-cancer drug. Another awardee from Bhopal is working to develop a new polymer to help in the treatment of several diseases from Nottingham University.
The success stories of this ambitious scholarship scheme of the Government have shown that given the right opportunity and necessary assistance, nothing can stop the young generation belonging to the marginalized sections of society to set their ambitions high, achieve them and serve their country.
Courtesy: PIB Feature

Free Essays for Competitive Exams- Green Economy

Green Economy

Celebrated annually on 5 June, World Environment Day aims at creating worldwide awareness and encourages political attention and action on environmental issues. World Environment Day thematic celebrations have in the past included caring for the earth and water, ozone layer, climate change, desertification and sustainable development, etc.

World Environment Day was founded by the UN in 1972 to mark the opening of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. 2012 marks the 40th anniversary of the United Nations Environment Programme and also of World Environment Day (WED), and 20 years since the first UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Earth Summit) in Brazil.

Why Celebrate World Environment Day?

When we see or experience the negative effects of climate change and environmental degradation, it is easy to blame others - for not prioritizing environmental policy; corporate organizations for raising issues like greenhouse gas emissions; NGOs for not lobbying strongly enough for the environment; and individuals for not taking action. World Environment Day however is a day we put aside our differences and instead celebrate the achievements we've made towards protecting the environment.

By celebrating World Environment Day, we remind ourselves and others of the importance of caring for our environment. World Environment Day is celebrated around the world in many ways, including street rallies, bicycle parades, green concerts, essay and poster competitions in schools, tree planting, recycling efforts, clean-up campaigns and much more. The 2012 theme for World Environment Day is Green Economy: Does it include you?

In its simplest expression, a green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbonresource efficient and socially inclusive Practically speaking, a Green Economy is one whose growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystems. If the Green Economy is about social equity and inclusiveness, then, technically it is all about us.

The Green Economy touches almost every aspect of our lives and concerns our development. It is about sustainable energy, green jobs, low carbon economies, green policies, green buildings, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, industry, energy efficiency, sustainable tourism, sustainable transport, waste management, water efficiency and all other resource efficiency. These are all elements involved in the successful implementation of a green economy.

The world today is facing a mounting crisis and in recent years we have experienced a combination of a global financial crisis, a food crisis, volatile oil prices, degradation of ecosystem and an unprecedented climate changes. These inter-related crises challenge the ability of human population to live peacefully and sustainably on this planet, and demand urgent attention of governments and citizens around the world. More importantly, as countries across the globe emerge from deep economic recession, it emphasizes the need for a Green Economy that addresses social equity.

What can be done?
Construction and buildings take a large toll on resources and climate. Energy audit can reduce your building's climate footprint and lead to significant savings in energy costs.

Overfishing in many parts of the world threatens to deplete future fish stocks. We can avoid this by working to promote sustainable fishing practices.  Choose sustainably harvested seafood.


Deforestation accounts for close to 20% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainably managed forests can continue to support communities and ecosystems without damaging environment and climate. Use electronic files to reduce your demand for paper products. When you support certified sustainable forest products, you support a healthy environment and sustainable livelihoods.

Riding alone in your car isn't just environmentally and economically inefficient, it's lonely! Car-pooling or taking public transport reduces environmental impacts and economic costs while strengthening community. Walking or riding a bike for short trips is good for your health - and the environment's, too! When you choose alternative transportation methods, you support a Green Economy in the transport sector.

Billions of people worldwide lack access to clean drinking water or improved sanitation services - and population growth will worsen the problem. Taking small steps towards wise water use can help conserve this precious resource. Turn off the tap when you're not using it, wait until you have a full load to run your washing machine, limit shower time, and don't water your lawn right after a rain. Resource efficiency is key to a Green Economy and water is one of our most important resources.

The world’s population stands at 7 billion and may rise to more than 9 billion by 2050.  This means greater pressure on already crowded cities – where more than half of all people now live – and on natural resources, as demand for food, water and energy rises. It's time to support sustainable agriculture to ensure our ability to feed everyone. Grow your own vegetables, and shop at local farmers' markets. When you buy local, organic, and sustainable food products, you send a message to producers that you support a Green Economy for agriculture.

The current mainstream energy sources - oil, coal, gas, etc. - are not only harmful to health and environment; they're not sustainable in a world of growing energy needs. You can support the development of clean, renewable energy by choosing businesses and products that invest in them - or by investing in them yourself. While we work towards a transition to renewable energy, consider ways to improve your personal energy efficiency. Turn off lights and unplug appliances when you are not using them.                                        

Recycling appropriate materials and composting food waste reduces the demand on our natural resources.

In this significant year for the environment and sustainable development, the world leaders will once again meet at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development twenty years after the historic Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, 1992.

Sustainability entails providing opportunity for all by balancing the social, economic and environmental dimensions of development.  We have to rebut the myth that there is conflict between economic health and environment.  With right policies and the right investments, we can protect our environment, grow our economy, generate employment and accelerate social progress.

Moving towards a green economy has the potential to achieve sustainable development and eradicate poverty on an unprecedented scale, with speed and effectiveness. It requires world leaders, civil society and industry to collaboratively work towards this transition. It will also need a sustained effort on the part of policy makers and citizens to rethink and redefine traditional measures of wealth, prosperity and well-being. 

Wednesday, 27 June 2012

Quotable quote-Message of the Day

Never hold head high with pride or ego. Even the winner of the gold medal gets his medal only when he puts his head down 

Free Essays for competitive exams-Drug Abuse – A Holistic Approach

Drug Abuse – A Holistic Approach

Drug abuse, also called substance abuse or chemical abuse, is a disorder that is characterized by a destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant problems or distress. Teens are increasingly engaging in prescription drug abuse, particularly narcotics (which are prescribed to relieve severe pain), and stimulant medications, which treat conditions like attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy.
Long ago…
Initially, drug users were look down upon as those lacking in moral values that accounted for this strange consumption (of the drug) and it was more often held that a person was not "man enough" to get away from addiction. It was first recognized to be a disease like any other, by Alcoholics Anonymous, who did pioneering work in this field as an organization, delving deep into the reasons why a person fell into and subsequently in short time lost control of himself on such usage. Dr.Jellinek's path-breaking studies helped change the very orientation one hitherto had about these alcohol/drug users (abusers). Further with the advancement of neuro-physiological science, more importantly after 1956, one came to the conclusion that drug abuse is a chronic disease, could trouble a person for his entire life and was ultimately, curable by proper treatment. The disease of addiction was thus much better understood than in the past. What was needed therefore, more than the sympathy towards such affected persons, a due recognition and systematic treatment appropriate for such cases. These could be akin to treating patients with other health problems like sugar-control or hyper-tension, to name a few.
Types of Drugs
Drugs drastically put to wrong use are brown sugar (its inferior version is heroin) cannabis (ganja, bangh and other such categories) and even alcohol which qualifies to fall under the drug category, for the reason that it is merely a chemical in liquid form that is used to give a "high". Even thinners usable with paints and other such common material could be called drugs. There could also be a case of drug abuse, where a medically prescribed item is consumed frequently, in increased quantity and violates the prescribed amount. Persons recognize that this produces a sensation that "puts them up" and they therefore start using these constantly, not when it is actually needed as a medicine.  
WHO Reports
The yearly report released by bodies like WHO normally indicates an increase/decrease in pattern of drug in use, wherein sometimes what could be more prevalent would be smoking heroin; at other times it could be  injecting cannabis. All these are to be seen more as fluctuations in drug abuse, than anything else. There are many criteria to determine whether a person is addicted or not. These could range from physical warning signs, emotional signs to an abrupt or gradual change in the family dynamics that lead to marked changes in social behaviour. The person exhibits red and glazed eyes with poor eating and sleeping habits and may also show general lack of interest and become a victim of sudden mood changes. He may develop a strange secretiveness that keeps him away from the family. On the social side he would try to become a truant with an altogether negative attitude. But as a thumb rule it would be better if one stuck to repeated usages as a symptom, where the user is fully aware of the consequences and but is prevented by a strange inability to restrict or stop the consumption of the drug in terms of quantity, frequency and be inclined towards an insurmountable urge towards drug usage.
Instead of looking at the causes for drug addiction per se', it is better to understand it as a vulnerability to addiction. That would a better term. Genetic make-up plays a vital part in forming this habit, the family and friends around a person may serve as a deterrent or cause further usage of the drug(s) thereby increasing the positive expectancy that is to be derived out of it. If there is tacit approval by those around him, then it is held as a normal habit. It is no more drug abuse ; it is only rightful "use". It is "taken" in its stride. Psycho-social factors, lack of coping skills, the mechanism of a backup of friends during immense emotional pain - any or all these may be the causes for the above-mentioned vulnerability.
Withdrawal Symptoms
Withdrawal symptoms create an uncomfortable feeling and will depend more on the drug which is consumed. The body and mind become restless, become more and more irritable, all parts of the body could be affected and there is pronounced sleep disturbance. It is similar to a pair of physical balances where one scale is at its extreme and what is strictly happening is a process of re-adjustment. If the patient goes back wanting to consume only a small quantity then the brain recalls the experiences it has had in the past and forces him to consume more and more till it provides complete satisfaction. This is a state that has to be completely avoided. It would be a reminder here that substitution of one drug by another is neither the solution nor the cure.
Drug abuse, then is the disease of the body, the mind and the soul. Though treatment may begin medically but that alone is not enough and the patient would need an enormous amount of psychological help. If,  a person gets cornered and conquered by an intake for three valium tablets, for instance, he should be taught and educated how to pass his time without these three. It requires long-term treatment, a change in lifestyle and the involvement of the family becomes cardinal in these kinds of treatments. Care should be taken to see that the patients’ dignity is preserved and he should always be respected.
Prevention is a community process and not a one-time affair or a single day affair, of taking vows and the like. Instilling mere knowledge that drugs are bad alone may not also work. Developing of coping skills, learning to say a firm "no" to drugs even when repeatedly persuaded, a good support system, echoing the message against drug addiction repeatedly at different points of time, involving all sectors of the society are some of the preventive measures to be taken, all in a truly holistic manner, if results are to be seen.
Government Initiatives
The Union Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, as the focal point for drug demand reduction programmes in the country, has been implementing the Scheme for Prohibition and Drug Abuse Prevention since the year 1985-86. As implementation of programmes for de-addiction and rehabilitation of drug addicts require sustained and committed/involved effort with a great degree of flexibility and innovation, a State-community (voluntary) partnership appears to be particularly strong mechanism for service delivery. Accordingly, under the Scheme, while major portion of the cost of services is borne by the Government, the voluntary organisations provide actual services through the Counselling and Awareness Centres; De addiction cum Rehabilitation Centres, De addiction Camps, and Awareness Programmes. The Ministry is assisting 361 voluntary organisations for maintaining 376 De-addiction-cum-Rehabilitation Centres and 68 counselling and Awareness Centres all over the country. The basic objective in creating facilities for treatment, at Centres run through voluntary organisations, is to ensure that the support of the family and the community is mobilized to the maximum.
 To facilitate the medical treatment of hard-core addicts who require intensive long-term medical attention, 100 De-addiction Centres are being run in Government hospitals/Primary Health Centres, etc. The initiatives from the Government include maintaining of Quality Assurance and Minimum Standards ensured by developing a Manual of Minimum Standards of Services, Professional Manpower Development where National Centre for Drug Abuse Prevention (NCDAP) as an apex institution has the necessary mandate for training, research and development in the drug sector and Focused Interventions for Vulnerable Targets where The Workplace Prevention Programme (WPP), a collaborative effort of the Government, ILO, NGOs and corporate sector has come up as a result. This collaboration has led to the formation of an effective group of various stakeholders, known as ARMADA, the Association of Resource Managers against Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Government and IITs agree on compromise admission formula

Government and IITs agree on compromise admission formula

The government and Indian Institute of Technology, IITs have resolved their differences on the entrance exam row by agreeing on a compromise formula over holding the common exam from next academic year. As per the agreement, admission to the IITs from 2013 will be based only on the rank achieved in the advance test subject to the condition that selected candidates are in the top 20 percentile of successful candidates of various States’ Boards. This formula replaces the proposed format of giving weightage to the class XII board results. The compromise was reached at a Delhi meeting of the IIT Council, the highest decision making body with representatives from the government and the Directors of all IITs. Talking to media, Director, IIT-Delhi and Chairman of Joint Admission Board, Prof R K Shevgaonkar said, 1.5 lakh students will be screened for the advance test. He said, it will be used as an eligibility criterion.

The government had earlier announced the new test from 2013, under which aspiring candidates for IITs and other central institutes such as NITs and IIITs would have to take tests under a new format of the common entrance test, which would also take the plus two board results into consideration. This was rejected by IITs-Delhi and Kanpur. 

TNPSC Group IV Exam (VAO) 2011- Paper-part 1

TNPSC Group IV Exam (VAO) 2011- Paper-part 1

 1. Azad Hind Fauj was

a) Indian National Army
b) British National Army
c) Pakistan National Army
d) French national Army

Answer: a

  2. Planning commission of India was set up in the year

a) 1950
b) 1949
c) 1951
d) 1952

  Answer: a

3. The state Governor must have completed ---------- years

a) 30
b) 35
c) 40
d) 45

Answer: b

4. The solution set of x2+10x+21=0 is

a) {7,3}
b) {7,-3}
c) {-7,3}
d) {-7,-3}

Answer: d

5. The Election Commission of India is a body of --------------- members

a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Answer: c

6. The Pandiyan king who put an end to the kalabhra rule

a) Kadungon
b) Simhavishnu      
c)  Maravarman
d) Achuthan

Answer: a

7.  “ Narai mudithu sollal murai seidha cholan” is

a) Kulothungan
b) Rajendran I
c) Karikalan
d) Vijayalayan

Answer: c

8. The plan launched on the fiftieth year of independence was

a) Third five- year plan
b) Eighty five- year plan
c) Tenth five- year plan
d) Ninth five- year plan

Answer: d

9. The north- eastern part of Himalayas receive more than 300 cm rainfall by

a) Bay of Bengal Branch
b) Arabian Sea Branch
c) Gulf of Khambhat branch
d) Konkan branch

Answer: a

10. The name of the scales in Mullet fish is

a) Placoid
b) Cycloid
c) Ctenoid
d) Ganoid

Answer: c

11. Who was praised as “ Minnanar Vanangum  Deivam”?

a) Wife of Kusela
b) Ananganar
c) Wife of Krishna
d) Anusuya

Answer: c

12. The construction of Qutb- Minar was started by

a) Iltutmish
b) Qutb-ub-din-Aibak
c) Razia
d) Balban

Answer: b

13. In Tamil Nadu there is a ------------ tier system of rural local government

a) one
b) two
c) three
d) four

Answer:  c

14. Tamil Nadu is ------------- in geographical area among the states of the Indian Union

a) Eleventh
b) Second
c) Third
d) Seventh

Answer:  a

15. According to 2001 Census, India’s population was-------

a) 1.027 billion
b) 1.037 billion
c) 1.047 billion
d) 1.057 billion

Answer:  a

16. The stepping stone for the progress of the society is

a) School
b) College
c) University
d) Office

Answer:  a

17. Simple interest for Rs.5,000 at the rate of 5% for 2 years is

a) Rs. 250
b) Rs. 500
c) Rs. 750
d) Rs. 800

Answer:  b

18. The ultraviolet rays from the sunlight cause

a) Skin cancer
b) Blood cancer
c) Lung cancer
d) Bone cancer

Answer:  a

19. Which is not a simple fruit?

a) polyalthia
b) Berry
c) pepo
d) Drupe

Answer:  a

20. One a.m.u is equal to

a)139 Me V
b) 391Me V
c) 931 Me V
d) 936 Me V

Answer:  c

21. The operation flood programme relates to

a) milk production developmemt
b) water resource development
c) flood control
d) poultry development

Answer:  a

22. The Andes mountain range is located in

a) North America
b) Asia
c) South America
d) Australia

Answer:  c

23. The state which ranks first in per capita income is

a) Orissa
b) Bihar
c) Punjab
d) Gujarat

Answer:  c

24. Incidence of ‘ Yeasu Kaviyam’ was held at

a) Jerusalem
b) Somalia
c) Jordan
d) Samaria

Answer:  a

25. Vellore Sepoy Mutiny was fought in

a) 1806 A.D
b) 1860 A.D
c) 1804 A.D
d) 1857 A.D

Answer:  a

26. Which equation as y=4 as solution?

a) 2y+3=0
b) y-7=2
c) y+3=7
d) y+4=0

Answer:  c

27. Two prominent leaders of Punjab were arrested in connection with the hartal against Rowlatt Act . They are

a) Jawaharal Nehru and Gandhi
b) Motilal Nehru and C.R .Das
c) Satyapal and Saifuddin Kichloo
d) Tilak and Bipin Chandra pal

Answer:  c

28. Larger number of jute mills are found on the banks of the ------------ river

a) Kosi
b) Hooghly
c) Tapti
d) Indus

Answer:   b

29. The Samarasa Syttha Sanmarga Sangam was founded by

a) Periyar
b) Vallalar
c) Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy
d) T.M. Nair

Answer:   b

30. Rajya Sabha members are elected for a period of

a) four years
b) three years
c) five years
d) six years

Answer:   d

31. Insulin is a/an

a) human growth harmone
b) therapeutic product
c) vaccine
d) organic acid

Answer:   b

32. The first known metal to man is

a) Gold
b) Copper
c) Iron
d) Silver

Answer:   b

33. Formation of red blood cells in a normal human adult occurs in

a) muscel
b) spleen
c) bone marrow
d) skin

Answer:  c

34. The melting point of silver is

a) 327 C
b) 80 C
c) 961 C
d) 1083 C

Answer:  c

35. 18 ct contains ----------------- % weight of gold

a) 91.6
b) 75
c) 100
d) 94

Answer:  b

36. The cube root of 512 is-----

a) 18
b) 8
c) 6

Answer:  b

37. The First President of India was

a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
b) Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
c) V.V. Giri
d) Giani Zail Singh

Answer:  a

38. The main aim of non- co=operation movement was

a) Large scale demonstration
b) Hartal
c) Nonpayment of taxes
d) to attain Swaraj

Answer:  d

39. Bauxite is an ore of

a) Aluminum
b) Iron
c) Copper
d) Mica

Answer:  a

40. The headquarters of world trade organization  is at

a) New York
b) Geneva
c) London
d) Warsaw

Answer:  b

41. Who bagged two Oscar award for the ‘Slum dog Millionire’?

a) Gulzar
b) Bhanu Athaiya
c) Satyajit Ray
d) A.R. Rehman

Answer:  d

42. Who received the Padma Bhusan award for the social work in 2009?

a) V.P.Dhananjayan
b) Saojini Varadappan
c) D.Jayakanthan
d) G.Sivarama Krishnamurthy

Answer:  b

43. Who was the President of India during the year 2002-2007?

a) A.P.J.Abdul Kalam
b) K.R.Narayanan
c) R.Venkataraman
d) B.D.Jatti

Answer:  a

44. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment scheme was introduced in the year

a) 2007
b) 2009
c) 2010
d) 2008

Answer:  a

45. The first totally literate district in India is

a) Nellore in Andhra Pradesh
b) Ernakulum in Kerala
c) Kolar in Karnataka
d) Kancheepuram in Tamil Nadu

Answer:  b

46. The first Indian woman who travelled in American space shuttle , Columbia was

a) Indira Nooyi
b) Sania Mirza
c) Kalpana chawla
d) Pratibha patel

Answer:   c

47. The first woman DGP in Tamil Nadu is

a) Thilagavathy
b) Lathika saran
c) Aruna
d) Kiran bedi

Answer:  b

48. World’s fifth most powerful India woman in business is

a) Meira Kumar
b) Fathima Bibi
c) Pratibha patel
d) Indira Nooyi

Answer:  d

49. 20th commonwealth speakers conference was held at

a) New Delhi
b) Mumbai
c) Chennai
d) Thiruvananthapuram

Answer:  a

50. Branches of which tree appear on the UN flag ?

a) Eucalyptus
b) olive
c) Maple
d) Barley

Answer:  b