Wednesday, 27 August 2014

UPSC Exam-Civil Services Exam-2014-CSAT Paper 2- Question and Answer Part 1

Civil Services Preliminary examination 2014 – Paper-2- Part 1
Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT) – 2014
PAPER-II- (Booklet Series- A) 

Directions for the following 5 (five) items Read the following two passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

                      Passage – 1
In recent times, India has grown fast not only compared to its own past but also in comparison with other nations. But there cannot be any room for complacency because it is possible for the Indian economy to develop even faster and also to spread the benefits of this growth more widely than has been done thus far. Before going into details of the kinds of micro-structural changes that we need to conceptualize and then proceed to implement, it is worthwhile elaborating on the idea of inclusive growth that constitutes the defining concept behind this Government’s various economic policies and decisions.  A nation interested in inclusive growth views the same growth differently depending on whether the gains of the growth are heaped primarily on a small   segment   or   shared   widely   by   the population.  The latter is cause for celebration but not the former.  In other words, growth must not be treated as an end in itself but as an instrument for spreading prosperity to all. India’s   own   past   experience   and   the experience of other nations suggests that it is not a sufficient condition. In other words, policies  for  promoting  growth  need  to  be complemented  with  policies  to  ensure that more  and  more  people  join  in  the growth process and, further, that there are mechanisms in place to redistribute some of the gains to those who are unable to partake in the market process and, hence, get left behind.

A simple way of giving this idea of inclusive growth a sharper form is to measure a nation's progress in terms of the progress of its poorest segment, for instance the bottom 20 percent of the population.  One could measure the per capita income of the bottom quintile of the population and also calculate the growth rate of
income; and evaluate our economic success in terms of these measures that pertain to the poorest segment.  This approach is attractive because it does not ignore growth like some of the older heterodox criteria did.  It simply looks at the growth of income of the poorest sections of the population.  It also ensures that those who are outside of the bottom quintile do not get ignored.  If that were done, then those people would in all likelihood drop down into the bottom quintile and so would automatically become a direct target of our policies.  Hence the   criterion   being   suggested   here   is   a statistical summing up of the idea of inclusive growth, which, in turn, leads to two corollaries: to wish that India must strive to achieve high growth and that we must work to ensure that the weakest segments benefit from the growth.

1. The author's central focus is on
(a) applauding India's  economic  growth not  only   against its own past       performance, but against other nations.

(b) emphasizing  the  need  for  economic growth which is the sole determinant       of a country's prosperity.

(c) emphasizing inclusive growth where gains of growth are shared widely      by the population.

(d) emphasizing high growth.

Answer: C

2. The  author  supports  policies  which  will help

(a) Develop economic growth

(b) Better distribution of incomes irrespective of rate of growth.

(c) Develop   economic growth and redistribute economic gains to those getting left behind.

(d) Put an emphasis on the development of the poorest segments of society.

Answer: C

3. Consider the following statements

According to the author, India's economy has  grown  but  there  is  no  room  for complacency as

1. growth eradicates poverty.

2. growth has resulted in prosperity for all.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a)   1 only

(b)   2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D

                        Passage - 2
It is easy for the government to control State-owned   companies   through   nods   and winks.  So what really needs to be done as a first  step  is  to  put   petrol   pricing   on   a transparent formula - if the price of crude is x and the exchange rate y, then every month or fortnight, the government announces a maximum price of petrol, which anybody can work out from the x and the y.  The rule has to be worked  out  to  make  sure  that  the  oil-marketing companies can, in general, cover their costs. This will mean that if one company can innovate and cut costs, it will make greater profits.  Hence, firms will be more prone to innovate and be efficient under this system. Once the rule is announced, there should be no interference by the government. If this is done for a while, private companies will re-enter this market.  And once a sufficient number of them are in the fray, we can remove the rule-based pricing and leave it truly to the market (subject to, of course, the usual regulations of anti-trust and other competition laws).
4. Consider the following statements:

According to the passage, an oil company can make greater profits, if a transparent formula for petrol pricing is announced every fortnight or month, by
1. Promoting its sales.

2. Undertaking innovation.

3. Cutting costs.

4. Selling its equity shares at higher prices.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2 and 4

Answer: B

5.Consider the following statements:      According   to   the   passage,   private   oil companies   re-enter   the  oil   producing market if
1. A transparent rule-based petrol pricing exists.
2.There is no government interference in the oil producing market.
3. Subsidies are given by the government.
4. Regulations of anti-trust are removed.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 3and 4
(d) 2 and 4

Answer  : A

6.Five persons fire bullets at a target at an interval  of 6,7,8,9 and 12seconds    respectively. The number of times they would fire the bullets together at the     target in an hour is
(a) 6
(b) 7
(c) 8
(d) 9

Answer  : C

7. A group of 630 children is seated in rows for  a  group  photo  session. Each    row contains three less children than the row in front of it. Which one of the    following number of rows is not possible?
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 5
(d) 6

Answer: D

8. There are seven persons up on a ladder, A, B, C, D, E, F and G (not in that     order). A is further up than E but is lower than C.  B is in the middle. G is  between     A and B.  E is between B and F. If F is between E and D, the person on the bottom     step of the ladder will be

(a) B

(b) F

(c) D

(d) E


Answer  : C

9. Consider that:
1. A is taller than B.
2. C is taller than A.
3. D is taller than C.
4. E is the tallest of all.
 If they are made to sit in the above order of their  height,  who  will  occupy  the
 mid position?
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

Answer: C

10. Consider the following statements:

There are six villages A, B, C, D, E and F.

F is 1 km to the west of D.

B is 1 km to the east of E.

A is 2 km to the north of E.

C is 1 km to the east of A.

D is 1 km to the south of A.
Which three villages are in a line?

(a) A, C, B
(b) A, D, E
(c) C, B, F
(d) E, B, D

Answer: B

11. Four children are sitting in a row.  A is occupying the seat next to B but not   next to C.  If C is not sitting next to D, who is/are occupying seat/seats adjacent to D?
(a) B

(b) A

(c) B and A

(d) Impossible to tell

Answer: B

12. Assume that

1. The hour and minute hands of a clock move without jerking.
2. The  clock  shows  a  time  between 8 o'clock and 9 o'clock.
3. The two hands of the clock are one above the other.

After how many minutes (nearest integer) will the two hands be again lying one above the other?

(a) 60

(b) 62

(c) 65

(d) 67

Answer: C

Directions for the following 6 (six) items: Read the following two passages and answer the  items  that  follow  each  passage.Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

                      Passage - 1
    Climate change poses potentially devastating effects of India's agriculture.  While the overall parameters of climate change are increasingly accepted - a 10C average temperature increase over the next 30 years, sea level rise of less than 10 cm in the same period, and regional monsoon variations  and  corresponding  droughts - the impacts in India are likely to be quite site and crop   specific. Some   crops may respond favourable to the changing  conditions,  others may not.This emphasizes the need to promote agricultural   research   and   create   maximum flexibility in the system to permit adaptations.

The key ingredient for “drought proofing” is the managed recharge of aquifers.  To ensure continued yield of important staple crops (e.g. wheat), it may also be necessary to shift the locations  where  these  crops  are  grown,  in response to temperature changes as well as to water availability. The latter will be key factor in making long terms investment decisions.

  For   example,   water  runoff  from  the Himalayas is predicted to increase over the next 30 years  as  glaciers  melt, but then decline substantially thereafter. It will be critical to provide incentives to plan for these large-scale shifts in agro-ecological conditions.
India needs to make long term investment in research and development in agriculture.  India is likely to experience changed weather patterns in future.

13. Consider the following statements:

Climate change may force the shifting of locations of the existing corps due to

1. Melting of glaciers.
2. Water   availability   and   temperature suitability at other locations.
3. Poor productivity of crops.
4. Wider adaptability of crop plants.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a)   1, 2 and 3
(b)   2 and 3 only
(c)   1 and 4 only
(d)   1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: B

14. According   to   the   passage,   why   is   it important to promote agricultural        research in India?
(a)   To   predict   variations   in   monsoon patterns   and   to   manage   water resources.

(b)   To  make  long  term  investment decisions for economic growth

(c)   To facilitate wider adaptability of crops

    (d)   To predict drought conditions and to recharge aquifers

Answer: C

                         Passage - 2
It  is  essential  that  we  mitigate  the emissions of greenhouse gases and thus avoid some of the worst impacts of climate change
that would take place in coming years and decades.  Mitigation would require a major shift in the way we produce and consume energy.  A  shift  away  from  overwhelming dependence  on  fossil  fuels  is  now ,long overdue,   but   unfortunately, technological development has been slow and inadequate
largely because government policies have not promoted investments in research and development, myopically as   a   result   of relatively  low  prices  of  oil. It  is  now, therefore, imperative for a country like India treating   the   opportunity   of harnessing renewable energy on a large scale as a national imperative.  This country is extremely well endowed with solar, wind and biomass sources of   energy. Where   we   have   lagged, unfortunately, is in our ability to develop and to create technological solutions for harnessing these resources.
One particular trajectory for carrying out stringent   mitigation   of greenhouse   gas emissions assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) clearly shows the need for ensuring that global emissions of greenhouse gases peak no later than 2015 and reduce rapidly thereafter.  The cost associated
with such a trajectory is truly modest and
would amount, in the estimation of IPCC, to not more than 3 percent of the global GDP in 2030.  In other words, the level of prosperity that the world would have reached without mitigation would at worst be postponed by a few months or a year at the most.  This is
clearly not a very high price to pay for protecting hundreds of millions of people from the worst risks associated with climate change. Any such effort, however, would require lifestyles   to   change   appropriately   also. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is not a mere technological fix, and clearly requires
changes in lifestyles and transformation of a country’s   economic   structure,   whereby effective  reduction  in  emissions  is  brought about, such as through the consumption of much lower quantities of animal protein.  The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has determined   that   the   emissions   from   the livestock sector amount to 18 percent of the total. The reduction of emissions from this source is entirely in the hands of human beings, who have never questioned the impacts that their dietary habits of consuming more and more   animal   protein   are   bringing   about. Mitigation overall has huge co-benefits, such as lower air pollution and health benefits, higher            energy security and    greater employment.
15. According to the passage, which of the following would help in the mitigation of greenhouse gases?

1. Reducing the consumption of meat
2. Rapid economic liberalization
3. Reducing the consumerism
4. Modern   management practices of livestock.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)  1, 2 and 3
(b)  2, 3 and 4
(c)  1 and 3 only
(d)  2 and 4 only

Answer: C

16. Why do we continue to depend on the fossil fuels heavily?
1. Inadequate technological development.
2. Inadequate   funds   for   research   and development.
3. Inadequate availability of alternative sources of energy.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a)    1 only
(b)    2 and 3 only
(c)    1 and 3 only
(d)    1, 2 and 3

Answer: A

17. According to the passage, how does the mitigation of greenhouse gases help       us?
1. Reduces expenditure on public health
2. Reduces dependence on livestock
3. Reduces energy requirements
4. Reduces rate of global climate change
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and 4
(d) 1 and 4 only

Answer: D

18. What is the essential message of the passage?
(a) We continue to depend on fossil fuels heavily
(b) Mitigation of the greenhouse gases is imperative
(c) We must invest in research and development
(d) People must change their lifestyle

Answer: B

19. There are 50 students admitted to a nursery class. Some students can speak only English and some can speak only Hindi.  10 students can speak both English and Hindi. If the number of students who can speak English is 21, then how many students can speak Hindi, how many can speak only Hindi and how many can speak only English?

(a) 21, 11 and 29 respectively
(b) 28, 18 and 22 respectively
(c) 37, 27 and 13 respectively
     (d) 39, 29 and 11 respectively

Answer: D

20. A  gardener  increased  the  area  of  his rectangular garden by increasing its length by 40% and decreasing its width by 20%. The area of the new garden

(a)   has increased by 20%

(b)   has increased by 12%

(c)   has increased by 8%

(d)   is exactly the same as the old area.

Answer: B

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